No. The swab sample is analyzed in the lab by RT-PCR (Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction)
method. A French group has shown that the result does not correlate with viral growth in a culture. It has been shown that the higher the number of sample amplification cycles
used for PCR, the fewer intact viruses could be cultivated! This means that a positive PCR result of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the throat swab and negative viral culture is either very early in the course of the disease and the patient gets sick soon or the disease already lasts and the patient is probably no longer infectious. That means that after 10 days RT-PCR swab may be positive but virus culture negative. It is an important finding for both, the evaluation of infectivity and the duration of quarantine.
Recently, a quick test was developed to analyze the nasopharyngeal swab for antigen of the virus. Although the results are less accurate (sensitivity
80%), the test is approved, because it is much faster (20 minutes) than the PCR method (24 to 48 hours) and currently the quantity of PCR test material is not enough to test all the desired persons. In various countries, for example in Switzerland, the test can also be performed outside of certified laboratories, e.g. in pharmacies.