A prospective cohort study from the US was performed in 2110 young adults of 38 to 50 years, wearing an accelerometer. Patients were followed during a mean of 10,8 years. Daily steps were classified as low (< 7000 steps/d), moderate (7000 – 9999 steps/d) and high ( > 10000 steps/d) and stepping intensity as peak 30-minute-stepping rate and time spent at 100 steps/min or more. Outcome prameter was all-cause mortality. During the follow-up period 72 patients (3.4 %) died. There was significantly lower risk of mortality in the moderate and high step groups. This lower risk was about equal in Black and White participants and also in women. There was, however, no association of step intensity with mortality.
What do you need to know about covid-19 and pregnancy? Authors: Nerea Maiz1,2, Berta Serrano1, Anna Suy1, Elena Carreras1,2 1 Hospital Universitari Vall d’hebron. Barcelona. Catalonia. Spain. 2 Universitat de Vic-Universitat central de Catalunya. Catalonia. Spain. The infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes the COVID-19 disease, was first described in the city of Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread to the rest of the planet. The World Health Organization declared the coronavirus infection a pandemic in March 2020. A progressive accumulation of scientific evidence since the beginning of the pandemic has tried to determine the effect of this new disease on pregnancy and the influence of pregnancy in the course of the disease. How do normal changes in gestation influence in SARS-CoV-2 infection? Pregnant women have higher risk of disease and mortality due to certain respiratory infections. Normal changes of pregnancy make these patients especially susceptible to respiratory infections. Respiratory changes during pregnancy include increasing oedema and congestion in the upper airway tract and elevation of the diaphragm. These changes cause increased susceptibility to respiratory pathogens, added to others such as immunotolerance, metabolic changes, etc., make pregnancy a situation of special susceptibility. How is the virus […]
Although everyone knows that cycling is good for overall health, this has now scientifically been proven for persons with diabetes. In a longitudinal European study in 10 countries, the benefits of cycling in a large cohort of persons with diabetes (110,944 person years; 7459 persons) have been reported. Cycling for between 1 to 5 hours per week was associated with at least 24 % lower all-cause and CVD (cardiovascular disease) mortality when compared with non-cyclists, independent of other physical activities and possible confounders. Usually 4 – 5 hours of exercise per week is the recommended time to improve health. Taking up cycling for a 5-year period was associated with at least 35 % lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. These relations are stronger than the earlier reported beneficial effects of walking, probably because cycling is more intensive than walking. Cycling should be encouraged as an activity for persons with diabetes to reduce the risk of premature death.
Moulis (France, 2017): The prevalence of thrombocytopenia (too few platelets) and thrombocytosis (too many platelets) and the association with hospital admission and mortality. Platelets are involved in clot formation. However, they have multiple effects. Notably, they are involved in immune system regulation, participating in the control of infections, and may complicate auto-immune diseases and cancers. Abnormal platelet count (thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis) reflect disease severity in many condition and therefore can be used as a biomarker of disease severity in patients acutely admitted to hospital for medical conditions. Arvaniti (Greece, 2018): Epigenetics (changes in genes expression) in autoimmune liver diseases (ALDs) In our research we studied complex chemical processes and genetic (DNA) changes in blood cells (B and T lymphocytes) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). A relationship between changes in these chemical processes with disease activity was found, probably explaining part of the pathogenesis of the diseases and opening new ways for treatment strategies. Lanzillotta (Italy, 2020): Towards treatment optimization in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of inflammation of the pancreas. It carries a higher risk for metabolic and infectious complications, related to glycaemic derangements and biliary strictures or immunosuppressive […]
Internists are experts in diagnosing, treating and caring for adult patients. They often serve as medical consultants to physicians in other specialties. In some countries internists may specialize in general primary care of adults (for instance in Switzerland); they can also take additional training and “subspecialize” in such areas as endocrinology, hematology/oncology, immunology. Cardiology, pulmonology, gastroenterology and reumatology ususally are independent subspecialties. What is internal medicine? (European definition): The specialty of internal medicine covers a wide range of conditions affecting the internal organs of the body. Although some diseases specifically affect individual organs, the majority of common diseases may affect many internal organs of the body. The internist must then be trained to recognise and manage a broad range of diseases and, with the aging population, many patients with chronic and multiple disorders.
Vaccination changes the genes. this is untrue, the genes remain unchanged. The (RNA) vaccines do not enter the cells and thus also do not reach/affect DNA which is in the cell nucleus. The genes are made up of DNA. Vaccine development was too quick to be safe. Untrue, the development was quicker than usual because several steps usually performed after each other have now been done simultaneously. Also administrative procedures have been accelerated. However, every step, every procedure has been followed, so safety and efficacy are ensured. Vaccine side-effects. There are side-effects, but they are usually mild and consist of flue-like symptoms such as muscle and joint-pain, tiredness and unwellbeing, headache. They usually last a few days and are not dangerous. Actually it is a sign that the immune system is active and that is exactly the effect which is wanted. Also slight pain at the site of injection can occur and this is also short-lasting. There are more serious side-effects, but they are very rare. Infertility. This is absolutely no side-effect of the vaccines. However, there is limited research that Covid 19 itself may have a negative effect on fertility in men. Risk of allergy. The risk is limited […]
Everyone knows that lifestyle measures such as adjusting food patterns and increasing physical activities help to prevent or ameliorate diabetes type 2. However, what is not generally known is that sitting too much can worsen health conditions such as diabetes type 2. Research has shown that there is a new important modifiable lifestyle factor and that is “the time spent sitting”. Prolonged sitting time is associated with high blood sugar levels. Standing up or walk every 15 minute for about 3 minutes is enough to control the blood sugar throughout the day. The reason for this is that even small exercise make the body’s muscles work allowing sugar in the blood to enter cells and fuel the body. At the same time blood sugar levels reduce. Standing or walking during work, taking calls, during meetings or watching TV thus appears to be a very good idea. This of course next to the advices given by your doctor or other health care professionals. Reference: Paing AC et al Prev.Med.Reports 2018;12:94-100 and The Conversation May 11, 2021.